How do these trends differ at the state level?
The top 10 states for share of employment for workers ages 14-18 over the last 20 years are South Dakota, Utah, Iowa, Wisconsin, Nebraska, Wyoming, Idaho, North Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana.
These states are diverse in terms of where they rank for population share under the age of 18 as of 2019 — South Dakota, Utah, Nebraska, and Idaho rank in the top 10, while Montana and Wisconsin are in the bottom half of states.
Summer youth employment in North Dakota weathered the Great Recession better than other states, perhaps due to employment opportunities during the Bakken oil boom (Figure 4).
But employment has not kept pace with other states’ growth since 2015. Contrast that with Idaho and Utah, where youth employment was significantly impacted by the Great Recession but has increased dramatically in the last decade.
Youth summer employment in Idaho, Utah, and Montana appear to have been impacted the least by the COVID-19 pandemic, as of the third quarter of 2021.